Skip to content

Treating Cancer

11/07/2017

H B Turner

February the 4th was ‘World Cancer Day’ and May is Pet Cancer Awareness Month, so we wanted to take a look at Cancer. Cancer is a generic name for over 200 different types of abnormal cell growth, which are stimulated by genetics. Whilst the initiator is of genetic origin, this can be hereditary or epigenetic, epigenetic factors can include retrovirus, DNA viruses, carcinogens, oncogenes (Narita, 2014) and/or food/environmental factors (90-95% of cases (Anand et al. 2008)).

The genetic component occurs in deoxyribonucleic acid  (DNA), the paired chain being the structure, each individual part causing the action. These acids produce proteins, each protein having an actionable effect on others in the chain, either stimulating or halting further protein release. The position of each of these is  described as expressed, gene expression is switched on (i.e. having an action) or  switched off (no action).

An alteration in expression can therefore have a cascade effect dependent on how many further parts of the chain its’ particular protein production would have/will effect.

Genes can hold hereditary information on cancer production, which can be expressed as ‘switched on or off’ at birth, or can be ‘switched on or off’ throughout life through stochastic events. Alterations in gene expression have been identified as being through a trauma, change in circumstances, change in environment or even through changes caused by differentials in what goes into an animal, be it ingested, inhaled, injected or a topical application (see canine transmissible cancer article).

Inheritable cancer in humans attributes for 5-10% of cancers (American Cancer Society, 2014), whereas tobacco is attributed to 22% (World Health Organisation, 2014), and obesity 10% (World Health Organisation, 2014).

There is evidence that a healthy diet contributes to cancer prevention (Lawrence et al. 2012: Parkin et al. 2011: Anand et al. 2008) and we have known for some time that there is a substantial link between diet and cancer, through generations of unsuitable diet (Buell & Dunn, 1965), it has also been established that gut micro-flora establishing better digestion is linked with cancer prevention (Hullar et al. 2014).

During development there are several stages of cell replication, but it is always stimulated by a combination of genetic factors and cancer cell metabolism (Frezza, 2014).

If cancer gets into Adult Stem Cells then growth can increase at an exponential rate, due to the bodies own defence system speeding up replication in the face of what it considers injury or trauma, as these cells are ’immortal’ rather than wound healing/repair an overgrown occurs (Jones, 2015), this overgrowth is referred to as a tumour.

The metabolism of cancer cells is quite intricate and can result in differing metabolism within cell mitochondria, however common to all types of cancer is the conversion of glycogen to higher amounts of lactate than in normal cells and reduced quantities of Carbon Dioxide (CO2) output. The other commonality between these cells is that they are all highly acidic and hypoxic (lacking in Oxygen (O2)) (Frezza, 2014).

The most often used conventional therapy (in over 50% of cases) effects p53, a tumour protein that has been shown to have the effect of either tumour suppression or metastasis when given to rats that did not suffer from toxic poisoning after radiation therapy (Narita, 2014).

In conventional therapy rat model experiments, those rats that did not suffer from radiation poisoning and went on to receive chemotherapy had two outcomes, either tumour suppression or tumour metastisis (Narita, 2014), chemotherapy having an efficacy rate of between 2.1 and 2.3% (Morgan et al. 2004), of those that do achieve remission, there is a subsequent risk of Leukaemia (Dertinger et al. 2014: Curtis et al. 1992: Kaldor et al. 1990).

In veterinary oncology it is not common to use radiation therapy, although recent advances in the protocol have been made (LaRue & Custis, 2014), only chemotherapy is generally used, in human trials chemotherapy alone shows a recurrence rate of 93% (Balmaceda et al. 1996). Standard Veterinary chemotherapy utilises the drugs Vincristine, Doxorubicin and Cyclophosphamide: post surgical chemotherapy survival rates average between 107 and 257 days (Sorenmo et al. 2004: Hammer et al. 1991), whilst this data is old, these drugs are still used today.

Whilst current Cancer Research knowledge is specific down to the minutia,

is science missing the bigger picture?

However, the latest drugs being produced target prevention of the differential in small molecular metabolites within the mitochondria of each cell (Frezza, 2014).

During conventional therapy few nutritional recommendations are given, however, the use of microwave ovens is not recommended. Hassani et al. (2014) shows that microwaved food produces oxidative stress, induces hepatoxicity via increased lipid peroxidation and alters lipid metabolism.

Populations living in areas of high pesticide use have a 1.25 to 3.45 times increased risk of cancer (Parron et al. 2014) and links have been made between genetically engineered crops and, hypertension, stroke, diabetes, obesity, lipoprotein metabolism disorder, Alzheimer’s, dementia, Parkinson’s, Multiple Sclerosis, Autism, Inflammatory Bowel Disease, Intestinal Infections, End stage renal disease, acute kidney failure, cancer of the thyroid, liver, bladder, pancreas, kidney and myeloid leukaemia (Swanson et al. 2014). Therefore avoidance of GMO’s and switching to organic foods, may be advisable.

Whole grains and carbohydrates are advised to be taken as part of a leaflet produced by the American Cancer Society (2014, 2) “Nutrition for the Person With Cancer During Treatment: A Guide for Patients and Families” diet, which recommends eating several small snacks throughout the day such as:-

  • Angel food cake
  • Cereal (hot or cold)
  • Pretzels
  • Granola
  • Sandwiches
  • Cookies
  • Crackers
  • Sports drinks
  • Muffins

 

  • Glycemic Index
  • Potato/Modified Starch 95
  • Ground Rice 95
  • Carrots Cooked 85
  • White Bread 70-85
  • Corn 70
  • Carrots Raw 30
  • Fresh Fruit 30
  • Veg & tomatoes <15
  • (where 100 is pure glucose)

This list would be on our recommendations list for avoidance at all costs.

Put simply, just as with anything alive, cancer has to ‘eat’, as cancer cell metabolism cannot occur without glycogen (Frezza, 2014), removing or at least reducing the quantity in diet may lead to tumour starvation and therefore regression, indeed there is much anecdotal evidence from people who have drastically changed their diet and successfully gone into full remission. A helpful reference for this would be the Glycemic Index (GI) of foods, which shows very clearly the glycose levels in foods.

As far as other holistic nutritional recommendations adequate selenium intake has been supported as being preventative (Rayman, 2012), other nutrients/natural elements found to have a positive effect are:

  • Vitamin B17 (aka Laetrile/Amygdalin) (Makarevic et al. 2014: Chen et al. 2013)
  • Vitamin C (Riordan et al. 2004 )
  • Vitamin D3 (Swami et al. 2012)
  • Bromelain (from pineapples) 12.5mg/kg (Baez et al. 2007)
  • Cannabis Oil (El Moneim Hussein et al. 2014)
  • Coconut Oil (Lim et al. 2014)
  • Curcumin (from Turmeric) (Marin et al. 2007)
  • CV247 (Toloudi et al. 2011)
    Sodium Bicarbonate (Simoncini, 2007)
  • SRG’s (extracts from aubergine, tomato, bell peppers etc.) (Cham, 2008)

N.B. There are journal articles claiming that natural supplements have no health benefit. An investigation into a number of these showed the use of synthetic products and/or insufficient quantities.

The earliest evidence of cancer heralds back to one Egyptian human mummy from around 3000 BC, however has been found to be very rare in that time. There is one set of Neanderthal bones that possibly had cancer, but nothing else. It wasn’t until the 17th century that descriptions for operations for cancer were recorded, most notably in chimney sweeps, who were exposed to toxins on a daily basis. Whilst cancer has been found in dinosaurs from the Cretaceous period, it is only found in Hadrosaurs, with a 1 in 10,000 frequency and is presumed to be due to some environmental mutagen (Rothschild et al. 2003), quite a differential to the current statistic of 1 in 3.

Due to tumours propensity to be hypoxic, Oxygen therapy is gaining in popularity. In fact tumours grown in laboratories die off on their own if exposed to normal oxygen levels, and have to be grown in levels below 3% O2 (Narita, 2015). Increased oxygen is proposed to boost the bodies own immune system into destruction of Cancer cells. Current O2 levels are 20.95% world wide, this is considered to be oxygen deficient (Ho, 2009), however it is down to between 12% & 17% over major cities.

Along with the introduction of agriculture, and therefore the introduction of a diet rich in simple carbohydrates, there is an associated general decline in health (Richards, 2002)

Large scale use of chemical pesticides started in earnest after the second World War. The first incarnations were highly toxic i.e. arsenic and hydrogen cyanide, these were both ineffective and toxic to the consumer.

Second generation pesticides were synthetic a well known example of which is dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) discovered in 1939 by Paul Muller, who was subsequently awarded the Nobel Prize in 1948. It was not until 1962 with the release of the legendary book ‘Silent Spring’ by Rachel Carson that anyone other than the her appeared to question its’ environmental effects, never the less it was manufactured right up until 2009.

Third generation pesticides are water soluble and acutely toxic (Muir, 2012) and have been linked to adverse health effects including cancer (US EPA, 2006), most notably non-Hodgkin lymphoma and leukaemia (Bassil et al. 2007), as well as neurological effects, birth defects, foetal death (Sanborn et al. 2007) and neurodevelopmental disorder (Jurewicz & Hanke, 2008: Mink et al. 2011: Wigle et al. 2008: Weselak et al. 2007).

There is of course still the issue of other environmental chemicals, chemicals and preservatives found in prepared foods, toiletries, cleaning products etc., hormone disruptors (Henderson et al. 2000) (i.e. plastic food packaging), feline vaccines (Hershey et al. 2005: McNiel, 2001: Morris et al. 2001: McEntee & Page, 2001) plus hundreds of studies on many other vaccines (Blaylock, 2011, Bollinger, 2014) and radiation (Huang et al. 2014), that have also been associated with cancer.

Whilst there is much data on metastasis and it’s process appearing to be exactly like that of a fungal bloom, in that once metastatic cancer cells enter the blood stream from the original malignant tumour they spread throughout the body forming micro-metastases with a 0.02% of cell survival rate (Kienast et al. 2010). A whole host of data can be boiled down to the fact that a strong immune system can prevent metastasis, however, metatasis will occur in the body of an animal or person with a  compromised immune system and once it does conventional medicine states it is fatal (Vanharanta, 2015); whether the immune system has been negatively effected by inflammatory food intake, environmental pressures, genetic issues or by radiation and/or chemotherapy. This is why many alternative treatments for cancer (such as CV247) concentrate on supporting the immune system to naturally destroy the cancer and thus prevent it’s re-occurrence.

Over simplification:

GMO’s and vaccines lead to immunodeficiency; starch rich and sugary foods (simple carbohydrates) with a high glycemic index are known to feed both candida and cancer, they also promote leaky gut syndrome.

Therefore if indeed ‘Cancer is a Fungus’, that is Candida according to Simoncini (2007), and it certainly acts like it, this process allows its’ access into the blood stream, where it can circulate, get into cells and replicate.

Our modern day society contains a plethora of carcinogens that become difficult to avoid, however, it appears that a species appropriate raw diet, containing no simple carbohydrates, preferably from organic sources, with sufficient amino acids, know to halt cancer growth (Narita, 2015), and a good balance of vitamins and minerals, can contribute to both cancer prevention and cancer suppression; as can reducing/removing the stress and chemicals in your immediate environment, avoiding vaccines and microwaves, feeding/consuming pre and pro-biotics and moving to the countryside with higher O2 levels, reduced pesticide use and background radiation.

References

American Cancer Society (2014) Heredity and Cancer. (Online) Available from: http://www.cancer.org/cancer/cancercauses/geneticsandcancer/heredity-and-cancer [Accessed 16/12/2014]

American Cancer Society (2014) 2. Nutrition for the Person With Cancer During Treatment: A Guide for Patients and Families. (Online) Available from: http://www.cancer.org/acs/groups/cid/documents/webcontent/002903-pdf.pdf [Accessed 20/12/2014]

Anand, P. Kunnamakkara, A.B. Sundaram, C. Harikuma, K.B. Tharakan, S.T. Lai, O.S. Sung, B. Aggarawal, B.B. (2008) Cancer is a preventable disease that requires major lifestyle changes. Pharmaceutical Research. 25[9]:2097-116

Baez, R. Lopes, M.T.P. Salas, C.E. & Hernandez, M. (2007) In Vivo Antitumoral Activity of Stem Pineapple (Ananas comosus) Bromelain. Planta Medica. 73[13]:133-1383

Balmaceda, C. Heller, G. Rosenblum, M. Diez, B. Villablanca, J.G. Kellie, S. Maher, P. Vlamis, V. Walker, R.W. Leibel, S. & Finlay, J.L. (1996) Chemotherapy without irradiation – a novel approach for newly diagnosed CNS germ cell tumors: results of an international cooperative trial. The First International Central Nervous System Germ Cell Tumor Study. Americal Society of Clinical Oncology. 14[11]:2908-2915

Bassil, K.L. Vakil, C. Sanborn, M. Cole, D.C. Kaur, J.S. & Kerr, K.J. (2007) Cancer Health Effects of Pesticides. Canadian Family Physician 53[10]:1704-1711

Bollinger, T. (2014) Vaccines: Medicine or Attempted Murder? iHealthTube (Online) Available from: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=chVMPePZkwU#t=130 [Accessed 18/12/2014)

Blaylock, R. (2011) New Studies Reveal Alarming Hidden Cause of Breast Cancer. Mercola. (Online) Available from: http://articles.mercola.com/sites/articles/archive/2011/03/18/vaccines-increase-cancer-risk.aspx [Accessed 18/12/2014]

Buell, P. & Dunn, J.E. (1965) Cancer Mortality among Japanese Issei and Nisei of California. Cancer. 18[5]:656-64

Cham, B.E. (2008) Cancer Intralesion Chemotherapy with Solasodine Rhamnosyl Glycosides. Research Journal of Biological Sciences. 3[9]:1008-1017

Chen, Y. Ma, J. Wang, F. Hu, J. Cui, A. Wei, C. Yang, Q. & Li, F. (2013) Amygdalin induces apoptosis in human cervical cancer cell line HeLa cells.Immunopharmacology and Immunotoxicology. 35[1]:43-51

Curtis, R.E. Boice, J.D. Stovall, M. Bernstein, L. Greenberg, R.S. Flannery, J.T. Schwartz, A.G. Weyer, P. Moloney, W.C. & Hoover, R.N. (1992) Risk of Leukemia after Chemotherapy and Radiation Treatment for Breast Cancer. The New England Journal of Medicine. 326[26]:1745-1751

Dertinger, S.D. Avlasevich, S.L. Torous, D.K. Bemis, J.C. Phonethepswath, S. Labash, C. Carlson, K. Mereness, J. Cottom, J. Palis, J. & MacGregor, J.T. (2014) Persistence of Cisplatin-Induced Mutagenicity in Hematopoietic Stem Cells: Implications for Secondary Cancer Risk Following Chemotherapy. Toxicological Sciences. doi: 10.1093/toxsci/kfu078

El Moneim Hussein, N.A. El-Fattah El-Toukhy, M.A. Kazem, A.H. El-Said Ali, M. El-Rahman Ahmad, M.A. Ghazy, H.M.R. & El-Din, A.M.G. (2014) Protective and therapeutic effects of cannabis plant extract on liver cancer induced by dimethynitrosamine in mice. Alexandria Journal of Medicine. 50[1]:241-251

Fischer, A. Richards, M. Olsen, J. Robinson, D.E. Bennike, P. Kubiak-Martens, L. & Heinemeier, J. (2007) The Composition of Mesolithic Food. Acta Archaelogica. 78[2]:163-178

Frezza, C. (2014) Tumour Metabolism. Lecture for Cambridge University at The Cancer Research Institute, Cambridge 11/12/2014

Hammer, A.S. Guillermo Couto, C. Filppi, J. Getzy, D, & Shank, K. (1991) Efficacy and Toxicity of VAC Chemotherapy (Vincristine, Doxorubicin, and Cyclophospamide) in Dogs with Hemangiosarcoma. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine. 5[3]:160-166

Hassani, M. Galal, M.Kh. El-Hindi, H.M.A. & Abdel-Aziz, S.A. (2014) Oxidative Stress and Lipid Profile Alterations in Albino Rat Liver Fed on Microwave Exposed Food. Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences. 8[9]:412-417

Henderson, B.E. Bernstein, L. & Ross, R.K. (2000) Chapter 13 Hormones and the Etiology of Cancer. In Bast, R.C. Kufe, D.W. Pollock, R.E. et al. Holland-Frei Cancer Medicine (ed. 5) Hamilton, Ontario

Hershey, A.E. Dubielzig, R.R. Padilla, M.L & Helfand, S.C. (2005) Aberrant p53 Expression in Feline Vaccine-associated Sarcomas and Correlation with Prognosis. Veterinary Pathology. 42[6]:805-811

Huang, B. Law, M. W-M. Zhang, J. Shen. Y. & Khong, P.L. (2014) Radiation Dose and Cancer Risk in Retrospectively and Prospectively ECG-gated Coronary Angiography using 64-slice multidetector CT. British Journal of Radiology. 83[986]:

Hullar, M.A. Burnett-Hartman, A.N. & Lampe, J.W. (2014) Gut Microbes, Diet and Cancer. Advances in Nutrition and Cancer. 159:377-399

Jones, P. (2015) Stem Cells and Cancer. [Lecture] Cambridge University. Cancer Research Institute, Cambridge. 29/01/2015

Jureqicz, J. & Hanke, W. (2008) Prenatal and Childhood Exposure to Pesticides and Neurobehavioral Development: Review of Epidemiological Studies. Int J Occup Med Environ Health 21[2]:121-32

Kaldor, J.M. Day, N.E. Pettersson, F. Clarke, A. Pedersen, D. Mehnert, W. Bell, J. Host, H. Prior, P. Karjalainen, S. Neal, F. Koch, M. Band, P. Choi, W. Kirn, V.P. Arslan, A. Zaren, B. Belch, A.R. Storm, H. Kittlemann, B. Fraser, P. & Stovall, M. (1990) Leukemia Following Chemotherapy for Ovarian Cancer. The New England Journal of Medicine. 322[1]:1-6

Kienast, Y. Von Baumgarten, L. Fuhrmann, M. Klinkert, W.E.F. Goldbrunner, R. Herms, J. & Winkler, F. Real-time imaging reveals the single steps of brain metastasis formation. Nature Medicine. 16:116-122

LaRue, A.M. & Custis, J.T. (2014) Advances in Veterinary Radiation Therapy: Targeting Tumors and Improving Patient Comfort. Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice. 44[5]:909-923

Lawrence, H. Kushi, ScD. Doyle, C. McCullough, M. Rock, C.L. Denmark-Wahnefried, W. Bandera, E.V. Gapstur, S. Patel, A.V. Andrews, K. Gansler, T. & The American Cancer Society 2010 Nutrition and Physical Activity Guidelines Advisory Committee. (2012) American Cancer Society Guidelines on Nutrition and Physical Activity for Cancer Prevention. CA: A Cancer Journal for Clinicians. 62[1]:30-67

Lim, F. P. K., Bongosia, L. F. G., Yao, N. B. N., & Santiago, L. A. (2014). Cytotoxic activity of the phenolic extract of virgin coconut oil on human hepatocarcinoma cells (HepG2). International Food Research Journal21(2).

Makarevic, J. Rutz, J. Juengel, E. Kaulfuss, S. Reiter, M. Tsaur, I. Bartsch, G. Haferkamp, A. & Blaheta, R.A. (2014) Amygdalin Blocks Bladder Cancer Cell Growth In Vitro by Diminishing Cyclin A and cdk2. Plos One. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0105590

Marin, Y.E. Wall, B.A. Wang, S. Namkoong, J. Martino, J.J. Suh.J. Lee, H.J. Rabson, A.B. Yang, C.S. Chen, S. & Ryu, J. (2007) Curcumin downregulates the constitutive activity of NF-kB and induces apoptosis in novel mouse melanoma cells. Melanoma Research. 17[5]:274-283

McEntee, M.C. & Page, R.L. (2001) Feline Vaccine-Associated Sarcomas. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine. 15[3]:176-182

McNiel, E.A. (2001) Vaccine-Associated Sarcomas in Cats: A Unique Cancer Model. Clinical Orthopaedics & Related Research. 382:21-27

Mink, P.J. Mandel, J.S. Lundin, J.I. & Sceurman, B.K. (2011) Epidemiological Studies of Glyphosate and non-cancer health outcomes: a review. Regul. Toxicol Pharmacol. 61[2]:172-84

Morgan, G. Ward, R. & Barton, M. (2004) The Contribution of Cytotoxic Chemotherapy to 5-year Survival in Adult Malignancies. Clinical Oncology. 16[8]:549-560

Morrison, W.B. Starr, R.M. & the Vaccine-Associated Feline Sarcoma Task Force. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association. 218[5]:697-702

Muir, P. (2012) History of Pesticide Use. Oregon State University. (Online) Available from: http://people.oregonstate.edu/~muirp/pesthist.htm [Accessed 16/12/2012]

Narita, M. (2014) Oncogene & Tumour Suppression. Lecture for Cambridge University at The Cancer Research Institute, Cambridge 04/12/2014

Narita, M. (2015) Senescence, Cell Death & Apoptosis. Lecture for Cambridge University at The Cancer Research Institute, Cambridge 22/01/2015

Parkin, D.M. Boyd, L. & Walker, L.C. (2011) The Fraction of Cancer Attributable to Lifestyle and Environmental Factors in the UK in 2010. British Journal of Cancer. 105:S77-S81

Parron, T. Requena, M. Hernandez, A.F. & Alarcon. R. (2014) Environmental Exposure to Pesticides and Cancer Risk in Multiple Human Organ Systems. Toxicology Letters. 230[2]:157-165

Rayman, M. (2012) Selenium and Cancer Prevention. Hereditary Cancer in Clinical Practice. 10[4]:A1

Richards, M.P. (2002) A Brief Review of the Archaeological Evidence for Palaeolithic and Neolithic Subsistence. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 56[12]:1270-1278

Riordan, H.D. Riordan, N.H. Jackson, J.A. Casciari, J.J. Hunnghake, R. Gonzalez, M.J. Mora, E.M. Miranda-Massari, J.R. Rosario, N. & Rivera, A. (2004) Intravenous Vitamin C as a Chemotherapy Agent: a Report on Clinical Cases. Puerto Rico Health Sciences Journal. 23[2]:115-118

Rothschild, B.M. Tanke, D.H. Helbling, M. & Martin, L.D. (2003) Epidemiologic Study of Tumors in Dinosaurs. Nature. 90:495-500

Sanborn, M. Kerr, K.J. Sanin, L.H. Cole, D.C. Bassil, K.L. & Vakil, C. (2007) Non-cancer Health Effects of Pesticides: Systematic Review and Implications for Family Doctors. Canadian Family Physician. 53[10]:1712-20

Simoncini, T. (2007) Cancer is a Fungas. Edizioni Lampis. Italy

Smith, M.M. Trexler, E.T. Sommer, A.J. Starkoff, B.E. & Devor, S.T. (2014) Unrestricted Paleolithic Diet is Associated with Unfavorable Changes to Blood Lipids in Healthy Subjects. International Journal of Exercise Science. 7[2]:128-139

Sorenmo, K.U. Baez, J.L. Clifford, C.A. Mauldin, E. Overley, B. Skorupski, K. Bachman, R. Samluk, M. & Shofer, F. (2004) Efficacy and Toxicity of a Dose-Intensified Doxorubicin Protocol in Canine Hemangiosarcoma. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine. 18[2]:209-213

Swami, S. Krishnan, A.V. Wang, J.Y. Jensen, K. Horst, R. Albertelli, M.A. & Feldman, D. (2012) Dietary Vitamin D3 and 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 (Calcitrol) Exhibit Equivalent Anticancer Activity in Mouse Xenograft Models of Breast and Prostate Cancer. Endocrinology. 153[6]:2576-2587

Swanson, N.L. Leu, A. Abrahamson, J. & Wallet, B. (2014) Genetically engineered crops, glyphosate and deterioration of health in the United States of America. Journal of Organic Systems. 9[2]:6-37

Toloudi, M. Spachidou, M. Chatziioannou, M. Apostolou, P. Oakes, R. % Papasotiriou, I. Viability and cytotoxic-cytostatic test of CV247 component in human established cancer cells lines becoming from colon, breast and prostate cancer. Research Genetic Cancer Center [Internet] Available from: http://www.rgcc-uk.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/08/ATT00243.pdf (Accessed 21/1/2015)

US EPA (2006) Human Health Issues. (Online) Available from: http://www.epa.gov/pesticides/health/human.htm [Accessed 16/12/2014]

Vanharanta, S/ (2015) Introduction to the biology of Cancer Metastasis. On behalf of Cambridge University at Cancer Research Institute, Cambridge. 15/1/2015

Weselak, M. Arbuckle, T.E. & Foster, W. (2007) Pesticide Exposure and Developmental Outcomes: The Epidemiological Evidence. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. 10[1-2]:41-80

Wigle, D.T. Arbuckle, T.E. Turner, M.C. Berube, A. Yang, Q. Liu, S. & Krewski, D. (2008) Epidemiological Evidence of Relationships Between Reproductive and Child Health Outcomes and Environmental Chemical Contaminants. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. 11[5-6]:373-517

World Health Organisation (2014) Cancer Fact Sheet No297. (Online) Available from: http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs297/en/ [Accessed 16/12/2014]

  • Turner, H.B. (2015) Treating Cancer. Healthful Dog 2[1]:38-42

 

Advertisements
No comments yet

Leave a Reply

Please log in using one of these methods to post your comment:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out / Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out / Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out / Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out / Change )

Connecting to %s

%d bloggers like this: